Direct services or services to victims of crime are the services and efforts described in 42 U.S.C. 10603(d)(2) that: – The child abuse victim is a victim of a crime if that offense involves an act or omission that is considered child abuse under SAA jurisdiction law. In addition, child maltreatment for the purposes of this program may include, but is not limited to, children who are victims of: physical, sexual or psychological abuse; child pornography offences; neglect; commercial sexual exploitation; Bullying; and/or exposure to violence. Finally, a definition of the term “victim of terrorism” is contained in the Principles and Guidelines on Human and Peoples` Rights in Countering Terrorism in Africa (2015), prepared by the African Commission on Human and Peoples` Rights (ACHPR): Although a victim of a crime is not a party to criminal proceedings, It plays a crucial role in the criminal justice process. His testimony is a very important part of the prosecution`s indictment against the accused. 2. A person may be considered a victim under this statement whether or not the offender is identified, arrested, prosecuted or convicted and regardless of the family relationship between the offender and the victim. The term “victim” includes, where applicable, immediate family members or dependents of the direct victim and persons who have been harmed by intervening to assist victims in need or to prevent victimization. Since the definition of victim was explicitly taken into account by the authors in the Statement of Fundamental Principles, the exclusion of any reference to collective harm or victim status in Rule 85 (a) was probably a deliberate decision. Thus, while crimes such as crimes against humanity are large-scale crimes and have an inherently collective component, it is the notion of personal harm to the individual, regardless of position, that determines the individual`s status as a victim before the ICC. This may have the effect of excluding any broad, collective, diaspora-like claim to the Court or that might otherwise place the individual participant in a capacity to represent the community concerned (McDermott, 2009, p. 32).

A person who has been charged, convicted or found not criminally responsible for the crime that led to victimization on the basis of a mental disorder is not defined as a victim. For example, if a parent has been accused of abusing a child, that parent cannot exercise the rights of the child victim or their own rights as a parent. 2) help victims stabilize their lives after being victimized; Some would also consider migrants and refugees fleeing terrorist violence as victims of terrorism (see also modules 1-5 of the series of academic modules on trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants). A significant number of these individuals may have been victims of direct terrorist attacks or flee the wider impact of terrorist activities in their region, such as increased insecurity and limited opportunities or lack of opportunities for themselves and their families. In particular, the former UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism argued that any effective counter-terrorism policy must include a comprehensive migration policy that respects human rights, justice, accountability, human dignity, equality and non-discrimination, and provides victims of terrorism with the protection to which they are entitled. (Report of the General Assembly 71/384, paras. 54 and 55). (3) help victims understand and participate in the criminal justice system; or This definition essentially covers all situations in which persons become victims as a result of crimes committed by terrorist organizations. If the victimization results from violations of human rights, international humanitarian law or refugee law, the definition contained in the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to Reparation for Victims of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (Basic Principles and Guidelines for Victims) (para. 8) is also relevant: If a terrorist act falls within the scope of one of the predicate crimes: under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Rule 85 of its Rules of Procedure and Evidence (ICC, 2013) defines a “victim” as follows: A victim of a crime or a victim of a crime is a person who has suffered physical harm, sexual, financial or emotional as a result of the commission of an offence. 5. Where appropriate, judicial and administrative mechanisms should be established and strengthened to enable victims to obtain redress through prompt, fair, inexpensive and accessible formal or informal procedures.

Victims should be informed of their right to seek redress under these mechanisms. However, there are differences between definitions that may relate to the specific context of their application. For example, while both the Declaration of Basic Principles and the Basic Principles and Guidelines concerning Victims provide for collective harm consistent with the commission of large-scale terrorist atrocities, rule 85 (a) of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Criminal Court contains no reference to collective harm. Although Rule 85(a) defines victims in the plural (as opposed to the singular in the Court`s ad hoc definitions), it contains no express reference to the possibility that the notion of victim may include a collective or group. The rights of victims of crime must be taken into account at all stages of criminal proceedings. Disclaimer: This infographic is not intended to be legal advice. In particular, the above three definitions define the term “victim” by reference to the harm suffered and not to the offence committed against him. The concept of victim is therefore understood in direct relation to the victim and not to the act of the perpetrator (although, of course, there must be a link between the damage suffered and the act committed). Two ICC cases indicate a possible change in the way children born of rape are perceived. An expert report submitted in the Bemba case suggests that children should be considered victims for assessing reparations, while in Ongwen`s case, prosecutors have recognized children born of rape in captivity by the LRA as a category of victims. (b) allow the views and concerns of victims to be expressed and taken into account at appropriate stages of the proceedings when their personal interests are affected, without prejudice to the accused and in accordance with the relevant national criminal justice system; Victims of terrorism are: (a) persons killed or seriously injured, physically or mentally, as a result of the commission of a terrorist act (direct victims); (b) the next of kin or dependants of an immediate victim (secondary victims); (c) Innocent persons who have been killed or suffered serious injuries indirectly attributable to a terrorist act (indirect victims); and (d) potential future victims of terrorism (para.